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The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Lithuania
The Ministry of Culture
of the Republic of Lithuania
 

The Lithuanian Media Support Foundation


 



 

UNESCO Cultural Management and Cultural Policy Chair at Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts

tekstai kuriami. jie niekada nebus sukurti

ATVIRAS. PATIKIMAS. KITOKS.

 

 

NOBEL prize for literature

 

Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been awarded annually as per Alfred Nobel’s last will and testament.
The categories are: literature, physics, chemistry, peace, economics, or physiology & medicine.

2006

 ORHAN PAMUK  

2005

 HAROLD PINTER who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppressions closed rooms.

2004

 ELFRIEDE JELINEK for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of societys cliches and their subjugating power.

2003

 JOHN MAXWELL COETZEE who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider.

2002

 IMRE KERTESZ for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history.

2001

 V. S. NAIPAUL

for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.

2000

 GAO XINGJIAN for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.

1999

 GUNTER GRASS whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history.

1998

 JOSE SARAMAGO who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality.

1997

 DARIO FO who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden.

1996

 WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality.

1995

 SEAMUS HEANEY for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past.

1994

 KENZABURO OE who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today.

1993

 TONI MORRISON who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality.

1992

 DEREK WALCOTT for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment.

1991

 NADINE GORDIMER who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity.

1990

 OCTAVIO PAZ for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity.

1989

 CAMILO JOSE CELA for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of mans vulnerability.

1988

 NAGUIB MAHFOUZ who, through works rich in nuance-now clearsightedly realistic, now evocatively ambigous has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind.

1987

 JOSEPH BRODSKY for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity.

1986

 WOLE SOYINKA who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence.

1985

 CLAUDE SIMON who in his novel combines the poets and the painters creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition.

1984

 JAROSLAV SEIFERT

for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man.

1983

 SIR WILLIAM GOLDING for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today.

1982

 GABRIEL GARCIA MIRQUEZ for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continents life and conflicts.

1981

 ELIAS CANETTI for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power.

1980

 CZESLAW MILOSZ who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices mans exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts.

1979

 ODYSSEUS ELYTIS (pen-name of ODYSSEUS ALEPOUDHELIS ), for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern mans struggle for freedom and creativeness.

1978

 ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life.

1977

 VICENTE ALEIXANDRE for a creative poetic writing which illuminates mans condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry beween the wars

1976

 SAUL BELLOW for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work.

1975

 EUGENIO MONTALE for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions.

1974

 EYVIND JOHNSON for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom.

 

 HARRY MARTINSON for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos.

1973

 PATRICK WHITE for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature.

1972

 HEINRICH BOLL for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature.

1971

 PABLO NERUDA for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continents destiny and dreams.

1970

 ALEKSANDR ISAEVICH
 SOLZHENITSYN
for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature.

1969

 SAMUEL BECKETT for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation.

1968

 YASUNARI KAWABATA for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind.

1967

 MIGUEL ANGEL ASTURIAS for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America.

1966

 SHMUEL YOSEF AGNON for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people.

 

 NELLY SACHS for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israels destiny with touching strength.

1965

 MICHAIL ALEKSANDROVICH
 SHOLOKHOV
for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people.

1964

 JEAN-PAUL SARTRE for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a farreaching influence on our age. (Declined the prize.)

1963

 GIORGOS SEFERIS (pen-name of GIORGOS SEFERIADIS ), for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture.

1962

 JOHN STEINBECK for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception.

1961

 IVO ANDRIC

for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country.

1960

 SAINT-JOHN PERSE (pen-name of ALEXIS LEGER ), for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time.

1959

 SALVATORE QUASIMODO for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times.

1958

 BORIS LEONIDOVICH
 PASTERNAK
for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition. (Accepted first, later caused by the authorities of his country to decline the prize.)

1957

 ALBERT CAMUS for his important literary production, which with clear sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of
 the human conscience in our times.

1956

 JUAN RAMON JIMENEZ for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity.

1955

 HALLDOR KILJAN LAXNESS for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland.

1954

 ERNEST MILLER HEMINGWAY for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea,and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style.

1953

 SIR WINSTON LEONARD
 SPENCER CHURCHILL
for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values.

1952

 FRANEOIS MAURIAC for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life.

1951

 PAR FABIAN LAGERKVIST for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind.

1950

 EARL BERTRAND ARTHUR
 WILLIAM RUSSELL
in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought.

1949

 WILLIAM FAULKNER for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel.

1948

 THOMAS STEARNS ELIOT for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present day poetry

1947

 ANDRE PAUL GUILLAUME GIDE for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight.

1946

 HERMANN HESSE for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humaitarian ideals and high qualities of style.

1945

 GABRIELA MISTRAL (pen-name of LUCILA GODOY Y ALCA-YAGA ), for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world.

1944

 JOHANNES VILHELM JENSEN for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style.

1943
1940

  The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1939

 FRANS EEMIL SILLANPAA for his deep understanding of his countrys peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature.

1938

 PEARL BUCK

(pen-name of PEARL WALSH nee SYDENSTRICKER), for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces.

1937

 ROGER MARTIN DU GARD for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novelcycle Les Thibault.

1936

 EUGENE GLADSTONE ONEILL for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy.

1935

  The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1934

 LUIGI PIRANDELLO for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art.

1933

 IVAN ALEKSEYEVICH BUNIN for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing.

1932

 JOHN GALSWORTHY for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsythe Saga.

1931

 ERIK AXEL KARLFELDT The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt.

1930

 SINCLAIR LEWIS for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters.

1929

 THOMAS MANN principially for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature.

1928

 SIGRID UNDSET principially for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages.

1927

 HENRI BERGSON in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brillant skill with which they have been presented.

1926

 GRAZIA DELEDDA

(pen-name of GRAZIA MADESANI nee DELEDDA), for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general.

1925

 GEORGE BERNARD SHAW for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.

1924

 WLADYSLAW STANISLAW
 REYMONT
(pen-name of REYMENT ), for his great national epic, The Peasants.

1923

 WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation.

1922

 JACINTO BENAVENTE for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama.

1921

 ANATOLE FRANCE (pen-name of JACQUES ANATOLE THIBAULT ), in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament.

1920

 KNUT PEDERSEN HAMSUN for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil.

1919

 CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG
 SPITTELER
in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring.

1918

  the prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1917

 KARL ADOLPH GJELLERUP for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals.

 

 HENRIK PONTOPPIDAN for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark.

1916

 CARL GUSTAF VERNER VON
 HEIDENSTAM
in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature.

1915

 ROMAIN ROLLAND as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings.

1914

  the prize money for 1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1913

 RABINDRANATH TAGORE

because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with comsummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West.

1912

 GERHART JOHANN ROBERT
 HAUPTMANN
primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art.

1911

 COUNT MAURICE (MOORIS
 POLIDORE MARIE BERNHARD
 MAETERLINCK
in appreciation of his manysided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers own feelings and stimulate their imaginations.

1910

 PAUL JOHANN LUDWIG HEYSE as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories.

1909

 SELMA OTTILIA LOVISA
 LAGERLOF
in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings.

1908

 RUDOLF CHRISTOPH EUCKEN in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life.

1907

 RUDYARD KIPLING in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author.

1906

 GIOSUČ CARDUCCI not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces.

1905

 HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer.

1904

 FREDERIC MISTRAL in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provenēal philologist.

 

 JOSE ECHEGARAY Y
 EIZAGUIRRE

in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama.

1903

 BJURNSTJERNE MARTINUS
 BJURNSON
as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit.

1902

 CHRISTIAN MATTHIAS
 THEODOR MOMMSEN
the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome.

1901

 SULLY PRUDHOMME

(pen-name of RENE FRANEOIS ARMAND ), in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualitites of both heart and intellect.


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